There are many different citation styles and choosing one can be
difficult. Instructors often specify which style they want their students
to use, but sometimes the choice is left to the student. Below is a list
of commonly used citation styles and the disciplines with which they are
associated. Regardless of which style is used it is most important that
that the same style is used consistently throughout the paper or
- The ACS style is the American Chemical Society
style format and is often used in chemistry literature.
- The APA style is the American Psychological Association
style format used in psychology.
- The Style Manual for Political Science, is
the American Political Science Association (APSA) style used in
political science and history.
- The CBE style is the Council of Biology Editors style
format and is used in scientific papers and research.
- The Chicago Manual of Style is used by
some social sciences and humanities scholars and is nearly identical
to Turabian style.
- The Columbia Style offers models for both the
humanities and the sciences.
- MLA style is the Modern Language Association style most
often used in English studies. More information can be found in the
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers.
- ASA style is the American Sociological
Association style format used in the area of sociology.
is a web based, citation formatting software that is available to all
UMass Lowell Faculty, Students and Staff. Just set up an individual
account at the Refworks site. Tutorials are also available on the site.
Most of our indexes to journal articles enable you to export the citations
you've marked into Refworks for formatting.
There are many Web Sites that offer summaries of the various styles, as
well as suggestions for citing electronic resources.
- MLA Handbook (2003)
located at the O'Leary Reference Desk, UMass Lowell
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological
located at O'Leary Reserves, UMass Lowell South.
- The Chicago Manual of Style (2003)
located at both the O'Leary Reference Desk and in the
Lydon Reference collection.
- The ACS Style Guide: A Manual for Authors & Editors (2006)
located at the Lydon Reserve Desk, UMass Lowell North.