CAUGHT BETWEEN TWO WORLDS
The Diary of a Lowell Mill Girl,
Susan Brown of Epsom, New Hampshire
Mary H. Blewett
Funded through donations made in memory
of John Rogers Flather.
Cover illustration courtesy of New York
Copyright 1984 Lowell Museum
All Rights Reserved
ISBN 0 942472 08 X
Printed in the United States of America
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Regulations of the Middlesex Company,
1846, p.22. New York
Middlesex Company, 1850, p.35.
Regulations for the Boarding Houses of
the Middlesex Company, 1846, p.44.
View of Merrimac Street, Lowell, Mass.,
Power Loom, One Girl Attends Four,
The diary of Susan Brown is reproduced in
its original spelling and punctuation.
Material within the brackets has been
added by the editor. The small size of
the diary and Susan Brown's use of a
soft, blunt pencil rendered some of the
words illegible. Many of the events and
names in the diary were identified in the
1844 Lowell City Directory, the federal
manuscript census of population for 1840
and in the January to September 1843
issues of the Lowell Courier.
The editor thanks the American Antiquari-
an Society, Worcester, Massachusetts for
giving its permission to publish the
diary. Thanks also for assistance,
support and encouragement from Lewis T.
Karabatsos, Robert W. McLeod, Jr., Arthur
L. Eno, Jr., Martha Mayo and Ann
Robinson, University of Lowell, Helena
Wright, the Smithsonian Institution,
Maude Salinger, National Park Service,
and David Dearborn, New England Genea-
logical and Historical Society. Thanks
to Mary Donovan and Pat Moore of the
University of Lowell and Colette Lyons of
the Lowell Museum for typing the
manuscript and to Walter V. Hickey,
Pollard Memorial Library for his gener-
osity. I delivered a public lecture
based on the Susan Brown diary to the
Lowell Historical Society on March 4,
The publication of this diary is dedi-
cated to Tom Dublin.
In the early 1820s the Boston
Associates built the Lowell mills, had
the power canals dug and the great water
wheels set in place, and put together the
system of machinery which produced cotton
cloth under one factory roof. They had,
however, an immediate human problem: who
was to work the machines which turned out
the textiles? Most New England men were
farmers and would not leave the land to
work all day in factories. To tempt the
skilled Yankee artisans and freehold
farmers with wages high enough to
persuade them to leave their customary
work would have cost the Lowell mill
owners far too much money. In order to
realize the profits they expected from
the large capital investment in land,
buildings and machinery, the Lowell
capitalists recruited an untapped source
of labor to industrial work: the New
England farm girl.
Young, unmarried women could be paid much
less in wages than young men, but as
textile operatives they earned higher
wages than in any other women's occu
pation. Work for them was intended to be
a brief experience prior to marriage. An
operative's job at the loom or the
spinning frame was easily learned, and
after several years, each mill girl would
return home with savings in her pocket to
become a bride. Healthy, hard working
farm girls with thrifty habits and
unquestioned morality were encouraged to
spend a year or two or more as Lowell
mill girls. Their parents were assured
that the virtues of their Yankee
daughters would be preserved by a system
of careful supervision both at work and
in the corporation boarding houses where
they would eat and sleep. The steady
work habits and disciplined characters of
the girlhood of New England would be
adapted to the factory system. A high
rate of turnover in the work force as
young women came to work in the Lowell
mills and returned to their families --
protected the health and morality of the
operatives, released them from industrial
work to marry and kept the wage rate
down. The experience of the factory
system, furthermore, did not undermine
the habits and behavior of these
daughters of New England villages nor
turn them into a degraded proletariat.
Neither the time schedules of the board-
ing houses nor the rhythms of industrial
work overwhelmed the culture of rural
life from which they came nor made them
forget that they were their fathers'
daughters: the daughters of Yankee
Thousands and thousands of girls
from the towns and villages of New
England came to work in the Lowell tex-
tile mills in the four decades before the
Civil War. Historians know about their
lives from many sources. Corporation
work rules and boarding house regulations
show the plan and pattern of their lives
as industrial workers. Payroll records
indicate how much money they earned in
wages, where they worked and which jobs
they performed. The federal census, the
vital records of New England towns and
the early directories of Lowell yield
information on their ages and families,
their places of residence and the circum
stances of their marriages. The Lowell
Offering, published in the early 1840s by
factory operatives, reveals the literary
interests and abilities of some of them
in essays, poetry and short stories which
occasionally express their yearnings for
home and reveal the reasons why they came
to work in the mills. The Voice of
Industry in the mid 1840s provides evi-
dence of early labor protest by women
operatives. There are two published
memoirs of mill girls who became dis-
tinguished women of Massachusetts in the
nineteenth century.1 Recently, letters
and diaries of Lowell mill girls have
been discovered on the shelves of
archives and libraries or among family
papers stored away in trunks in New
England attics. Renewed interest in the
lives of Lowell mill girls has resulted
in the publication of some of these
Diaries are more rare. One is the
diary of Mary Hall of Concord, New Hamp-
shire, transcribed in 1967 and located in
the New Hampshire Historical Society in
Concord. Hall's diary, which was kept
for five years between 1831 and 1836, was
concise and terse, and its pages were
often filled with disappointing entries
of "not anything interesting" or "nothing
particular." Many of the dates were
blank, leaving the historian with no clue
to Mary Hall's thoughts or activities.
1. Lucy Larcom, A New England Girlhood.
(1889) and Harriet Hanson Robinson, Loom
& Spindle (1898).
2. Thomas Dublin, Farm to Factory:
Women’s Letters, 1830-1860,
University Press, 1981.
In 1979 I came across the diaries of
Susan Brown Forbes at the American
Antiquarian Society in Worcester, Massa-
chusetts. Among the many annual records
which she kept between 1841 and 1907 was
a "Lowell Almanac, Business Key and
Pocket Memorandum" published by Powers &
Bagley of Lowell in 1843. In this pocket
diary Susan Brown recorded her experi
ences as a mill girl.3
Diarists often recorded what
appeared important to them, not what
historians would like to know. In the
case of Susan Brown, her diary leaves an
incomplete picture of the experience of
industrial work for a New England girl
from the countryside. From her diary, we
can learn something about her work but
more about her social life: whom she saw
and what she did. Her diary from 1843 is
filled with her activities, records of
her wages, her expenses and expendi
tures,and the people with whom she
associated. Susan Brown remained very
much a New England village girl while she
worked as a weaver in the Middlesex
Mills. In the evocative words of Thomas
Dublin, she was "caught between two
worlds:" the world of the New England
3. The diary is about the size of a 3 x 5
index card and was written with a blunt,
soft pencil, rendering some words illegi-
village and the industrial world of the
Susan Elizabeth Parsons Brown was
born on a farm in Epsom, a small town
located in the hilly upcountry land of
Merrimack County, New Hampshire. Her
father was William Brown, a farmer whose
ownership of $2,000 in real estate in
1850 placed him among the average proper-
ty owners in the town. Her mother was
Lucretia Billings Gray of Epsom, the
daughter of James Gray and Suzanna
Parsons. She had one sister, Mary Lucy.
In 1841 when her diaries begin, she was
enrolled as a student at the nearby
Pittsfield Academy, a private high
school. In May of that year at the age
of seventeen, she began teaching school
in Epsom, a situation which she viewed
with decidedly mixed feelings. On May
13, she wrote: "Spent the day at my
school room feeling very unlike the
task before me that of instructing
about a dozen urchins in their
A.B.C.s…" She persevered, however, and
in 1842 she taught forty seven children
at a school in Pittsfield. Apparently
dissatisfied with teaching, she decided
to become a Lowell mill girl, and on
4. Thomas Dublin, Women at Work: The
Transformation, Work and Community in
Lowell, Massachusetts. 1826 - 1860,
Columbia University Press, 1979, p.56.
January 16, 1843 she arrived in the city
on the Concord stage coach. She was
eighteen years of age.
On the day before she left for
Lowell, Susan Brown, like many of the
young women operatives, knew exactly
where she was going to work and where she
was going to board. A private network of
family connections and information had
preceded her to Lowell. She noted on
January 15 that she would reside with a
family known to her parents, the William
Stickneys on Lawrence Street, and work
with the Stickney daughters in the
Middlesex Mills. The Middlesex was
located on the Concord River, somewhat
east and down stream from the other major
textile corporations of Lowell which drew
their water power from the canal system
fed by the Merrimack River.
The Middlesex Mills were owned by
the Lawrence family of Boston, and the
factories turned out woolen textiles
rather than the calicos, jeans and broad-
cloths produced by the eight cotton
mills of Lowell. In December
1842 with the introduction of the
Crompton loom at the Middlesex, the mill
Agent decided to cut piece rates for
weaving on the grounds that the new looms
would speed up the weaving process and
result in higher wages to the workers.
The weavers at the Middlesex objected and
called a strike, one of the leaders of
which probably was weaver Eliza M.
Hemenway, later of the Lowell Female
Labor Reform Association5 Making contact
with new girls like Susan Brown and
preventing them from working during a
"turnout" was a difficult problem for the
strikers, and their efforts failed. After
resting at the Stickney's house for one
day after her journey, Susan Brown began
to work as a sparehand weaver, learning
how to operate a loom in one of the
buildings owned by the Middlesex Corpo-
ration. When she took her place on
January 18, 1843, she did not mention
strikes or wage cuts in her diary and
seemed unconscious that she was a strike-
breaker. On January 24, her sister Lucy
arrived by stage coach from Epsom to join
her, boarding with the Stickneys and
working at the Middlesex.
Family ties and a network of friends
and the and kin had accompanied Susan and Lucy
Brown to Lowell and were maintained
5. This organization, formed in 1845 and
led by early labor activist Sarah Bagley,
criticized the way the mill managers
treated the operatives, opposed wage cuts
and helped publish a labor paper, The
Voice of Industry, beginning in October
1845 which expressed the interests of New
England textile workers.
throughout their stay in the city. On
February 9 a family friend, Ben Bickford,
stopped by and spent the evening at the
Stickneys. Upon his return to Epsom, he
no doubt told the Browns that their
daughters were safe and at work. This
visit was followed by a succession of
other visitors from Epsom including Brown
family members. Family ties were also
maintained by letters, by baskets of
home made treats sent to Susan by stage
coach and by a two week visit in July
from her mother. During her mother's
stay in Lowell, Susan spent some time
away from her work as a weaver and
enjoyed social gatherings at the
Stickneys among other families with whom
she had become acquainted. She and her
mother watched together at the sick bed
of a family friend, and before her mother
returned to Epsom, she did up Susan's
laundry for her. Her mother's visit was
especially important to Susan, because
her sister Lucy had quit work in the
Middlesex in May and returned to Epsom in
Boarding with a private family in
Lowell was not typical of the experience
of textile operatives. Most of the mill
managers made sure that the mill girl's
boarded in the corporation boarding
houses run by respectable older women,
many of them widows, who maintained
decorum and enforced the rules and
regulations. For Susan, boarding with
the Stickneys and working with the
Stickney daughters had special ad-
vantages. One cold, snowy evening in
mid February, Mr. Stickney "came with a
sleigh after us." Being part of the
Stickney family also brought Susan into
contact with their family friends, the
Fosses, the Hodgmans, the Hams, the
Whipples and the Dabneys, some of whom
apparently also knew the Browns of Epsom.
In early March after a spell of sickness,
Susan left the Stickney house to board
with the Fosses who also lived on
Lawrence Street, but she continued to
make social calls at the Stickneys and
went to parties with their daughters. In
many ways, Susan was still part of the
village life of New England even in
Lowell. Also boarding with the Fosses
was the Ham family, whose son George, a
carpenter became Susan's friend and
companion as she explored the city and
its cultural opportunities.
The new vista of social experience
which working as a mill girl opened to
the New England farmer's daughter was
certainly one compelling reason for her
to step into the stage coach to Lowell.
During the first weeks of her stay in the
city, Susan Brown attended public
lectures, and on Sundays she investigated
the various churches, one by one, observ-
ing the differences in doctrine and
service. She greatly disapproved of
both the Roman Catholic and the Free Will
Baptist churches and much preferred the
Unitarian Church of the Reverend Henry A.
Miles or the Second Congregational Church
of Uzziah Burnap.
On her evenings after work, she took
the opportunity to sample the cultural
activities of the new city, including
lectures by anti slavery advocates and on
temperance and magnetism. She attended a
performance of the "Reformed Drunkard's
Comedy" and heard a lecture by Asa Gray
of Harvard College on the new geology.6
She listened to concerts at Mechanics'
Hall and heard the famous Hutchinson
family singers. She was attracted to
curiosities: lectures by a "Portuguese"
preacher, by a "Jew" and by a "Jewess."
She saw a staged reconstruction of the
burning of Moscow in 1812. She ate
quantities of ice cream at French's ice
cream parlor on Central Street. Fre-
quently during the summer months, she and
her companions strolled through the
woodsy grounds of the new Lowell
Cemetery, which, like many Victorian
cemeteries such as Mount Auburn in
Cambridge, Massachusetts, was designed as
an urban park to be used and admired by
6. Fossil discoveries led to a new perio-
dization of the evolution of the earth
which contradicted Biblical creation.
the living. In June she took the train
to Boston with George Ham to attend the
services dedicating the Bunker Hill
monument, heard Daniel Webster speak at
the occasion which she noted as "grand
indeed," and toured the city, its
churches and parks.
Susan Brown's new cultural experi-
ences were balanced by an intensive
routine of social visiting with family
friends, almost as though she had never
left Epsom. During these visits, she
maintained many social practices common
to New England village life. She watched
along with others at the bedsides of the
sick and the dying, attended funerals and
cared for the children of family friends.
She took tea and spent evenings in the
homes of various families. She called on
the minister's wife, Mrs. Miles. She ran
errands for Mrs. Ham. When, as Lucy
prepared to return to Epsom, Susan moved
into a Middlesex boarding house on Hurd
Street, she felt cut off from this social
activity and wrote on June 1: "Spent the
night at my own boarding house among
In her Hurd Street boarding house,
Susan Brown quickly made friends among
her fellow boarders: New England girls
from home and families much like her own.
Thomas Dublin has described these friend-
ships as a community of peers which
created a collective sense of common
background and experience which was
important to the formation of groups of
mill girls who wrote for the Lowell
Offering and organized the Female Labor
Reform Association. Susan Brown's diary
indicates that while she did form some
friendships among girls in her boarding
house and in the Middlesex Mills, her
closest companions lived in other board-
ing houses and worked for other corpo-
rations. At the end of her pocket diary,
there was a business key to Lowell which
listed the addresses of all the corpo-
ration boarding houses. Susan placed
cross marks beside boarding houses
operated for the Appleton, Boott,
Lawrence and Suffolk and Tremont mills as
well as two private boarding houses. Her
network of friends who lived at the
addresses so marked seemed to have been
formed from village and family con-
nections, rather than by common residence
and work in Lowell. Susan and her mill
girl friends attended church together,
called on acquaintances and shopped the
many retail stores on Merrimack and
Central Streets. More importantly, Susan
integrated her friends into her intensive
social life among the people she had come
to know on Lawrence Street. Together
they attended funerals, took tea and ran
helpful errands, thereby balancing their
experiences as mill operatives by main-
taining the social patterns of village
Life. When Susan returned home in
September 1843, beside her in the stage
coach rode a friend from Epsom, the
sister of Ben Bickford who had first
called on the Brown sisters at the
Stickney house in February.
Susan Brown's diary contains fewer
references to work than to her social
activities. She wrote down nothing about
her experience learning to weave nor her
reactions to factory work except some
infrequent outbursts of homesick longing
to return to Epsom.
May 8: Sixteen weeks today! But it
will not be sixteen weeks
May 10: Still immured within the massey
brick walls of a hateful
August 18: Seven months since I first
entered the Middlesex -
Since I saw home! Alone, &
among strangers! Oh, when
shall I return?
According to the regulations of the
Middlesex Corporation and of all the
mills in Lowell, operatives in good
standing were required to work for at
least one year, give two weeks notice
before leaving, board in a corporation
boarding house and have their work
closely supervised. Susan Brown's
experience as a textile worker conformed
to none of these stipulations, although
her experience at the Middlesex may not
have been typical of other operatives and
the management of the Middlesex often
came under public criticism for incompe
tence. Susan worked for nine months,
left apparently without giving two weeks
notice and did not live in a corporation
boarding house until she had worked as a
weaver for four and a half months.
Perhaps she did not care ever to return
to Lowell as a mill girl when she left in
September. Her diary for 1844 was lost,
and in 1845 she returned to school
For the first five weeks of her work
at the Middlesex, Susan worked regularly
and steadily for 12 to 14 hours a day.
She made no complaints in her diary and
recorded the payment of her first wages
on February 9 as $4.32. The average
earnings of most mill girls were $2.00 to
$2.50 a week after paying board of $1.25
to $1.50. Susan had worked 20 days on
piece work weaving, earning about 22
cents a day or $1.30 a week, a reflection
of her inexperience and her position as a
sparehand. On March 10 she received
$8.95 for 19 days work, averaging 47
cents a day and more than doubling her
earnings. She was able to pay the
Stickneys $6.25 which she owed them in
board for about two months and kept the
balance of $2.70. In early March she at
last felt some money jingling in her
pocket. By the end of her nine months of
work at the Middlesex, she had earned
$78.07 for 171 days of weaving and had
paid out at least twenty dollars in
board, an expense which she did not
faithfully record. As a weaver at the
Middlesex, she averaged 46 cents a day or
$2.76 a week before she paid her board,
less than the typical earnings of other
operatives. Perhaps she became dis-
couraged by her relatively low earnings
and decided to return to Epsom. Her work
patterns at the Middlesex after the first
five weeks became irregular and unsteady,
one result of which was the below average
wages she earned.
Some of the irregularity of her work
habits seemed a matter of Susan's choice;
occasionally she "came out of the mill
for the day" as on February 16. The next
day she made social calls on friends with
Almira Stickney. In March and April she
was sick for a few days and came out of
the mill early on two more days. Between
April 8 and 12, she recorded herself as
sick, but went shopping in the afternoon
of April 11. Perhaps the management of
the Middlesex did not enforce the factory
discipline for which the other textile
mills were famous. There were other
factors beyond the control of either the
mill agents or the operatives which
stopped the water wheels and the looms.
As the waters of the Merrimack River rose
in the spring swollen with the melting
snow from the White Mountains in New
Hampshire, the water backed up in the
power canals and swamped the water
wheels, preventing them from turning
properly. No power was transmitted to
the machines; this was called "back-
water." In mid April the Middlesex mills
along with some of the others temporarily
suspended work because of back-water
produced by the spring thaw. Susan and
her friends explored the city and enjoyed
the warm weather. The work stoppage, the
lost time and wages and another bout of
sickness prompted Susan to consider for
the first time going home to Epsom. With
spring in full bloom around her, she
wrote on May 1: "Did not go to the mill.
I thought of going away." Sister Lucy had
already decided. She quit work on May 12
and left Lowell within a month.
Susan worked steadily for two weeks
in early May and then, on May 22, she
wrote: "Sick, did not work. Mrs. Hodgman
and I called at Mrs. Osgoods." That
afternoon and with no apparent twinge of
a Puritan conscience, she bought herself
a new bonnet at a milliner's shop on
Central Street. She worked steadily
again for another month, then treated
herself to a trip to Boston to observe
the Bunker Hill dedication ceremonies.
After her return, she continued a pattern
of irregular work until she left Lowell
in September. Sometimes Susan spent
hours waiting for a "beam", an essential
part of the weaving process. The beam
already wound with warp threads fit into
the back of the loom. The yarn which was
wound on bobbins and carried in the
shuttles of the loom was woven through
the warp threads from the beam into
cloth. Because Susan earned her wages by
piece work, these delays reduced her pay.
After her mother's visit in July, she
worked steadily for four weeks,
interrupted only by having to wait for a
beam or by teach- ing a new sparehand
If Susan's work experience was
recorded as irregular and reported to her
diary with a minimum of interest, she
habitually wrote down the receipt of her
wages and noted with care the purchases
she made with her earnings. Her wages
were not sent to her family. Her
decision to come to Lowell seemed to have
been a choice of new employment for her,
rather than as a supplement to her
family's income. Susan had the pleasure
of spending much of her earnings on
whatever she chose, which gave her a real
measure of economic independence from her
family, as a consumer at least. During
her nine months in Lowell, she bought a
Bible, one other book and a trunk. Most
of her expenditures were made on personal
apparel: a pair of rubbers, a bonnet, a
pair of gaiters or cloth coverings for
her shoes, a pair of mitts or fingerless
gloves and a dress of calico cloth. She
had a brooch mended by a local jeweler.
She had two dresses made at Mrs.
Pollard's on Merrimack Street and another
expertly cut out to be made. She bought
a $5.00 shawl, a major purchase. In a
flurry of shopping in August and Sep-
tember just before leaving for Epsom, she
purchased an album, a $2.00 Highland
shawl, needles and linen for "wristers"
or ornamental cuffs, a pair of elastic
mitts and $8.00 of yard goods for
dresses. As she and her friend climbed
into the Concord stage coach on September
21, Susan Brown had had the satisfaction
of thoroughly outfitting herself by her
After her experience as a mill girl,
Susan Brown returned to school teaching
in various New Hampshire towns, but she
did not stay, She, like many of the New
England girls who had worked in Lowell,
had been changed by her experience. In
1856 she became a clerk in a Boston
department store and met Alexander B.
Forbes at the boarding house where she
was living. They married in 1859 when
she was thirty five years old and to-
gether ran a boarding house until 1866
when Forbes took his wife to Springfield,
Massachusetts, where he opened the
department store, Forbes and Wallace.
Susan Brown Forbes lived in Springfield,
kept her diaries until 1907 and died
there in 1910. Her nine months as a
Lowell operative represented only a tiny
portion of her life which was less
typical of the experience of most mill
girls who worked on the average three or
four years. No one experience recorded
in a single diary is representative of'
the majority, but Susan Brown, like many
New England girls, responded to the
attractions of the new opportunities
offered in the Lowell mills. Drawn by
the prospects of good wages and a chance
to see and enjoy the cultural advantages
of city life, she joined the stream of
Yankee women prior to the Civil War who,
before the arrival of immigrants from
Ireland, worked the looms and spindles
and made the Lowell textile factories
January, 15: Am to leave home tomorrow
for Lowell to
board at [William]
Stickney's and work in the
Mills with his daughters
1. In 1843 the Middlesex Manufacturing
Company operated two mills with dye-
houses, ran 4,620 spindles for woolen
yarn and 129 looms which produced
cassimere and broadcloth woolen goods.
The mill employed 400 female and 220 male
operatives. The company had been incorp-
orated in 1828 with capital assets of
$600,000. The treasurer was Samuel
Lawrence and the mill agent was James
Cook. The management of the Middlesex
came under increasing public criticism in
the 1840s for incompetence. By 1848
Samuel Lawrence, the black sheep of the
Lawrence family of Boston in comparision
with his brothers Amos and Abbott who
founded the city of Lawrence in 1845, had
run the company down, lost its capital
and went bankrupt. The Middlesex was
bought in 1850 by Benjamin F. Butler of
Lowell, a political rival of the textile
interests and a friend of the operatives,
who immediately cut the work day to ten
William Stickney was a carpenter
employed at the O.M. Whipple Powder Mill
which made gunpowder and was located on
the Concord River.
16 - Took stage for Lowell this AM and
arrived at Mrs. Stickneys
night Father took
me to Jenness
Corner for the stage1
17 - Wrote home.
18 - Began work in Lawrence Woolen Mill
on the Middlesex Corporation.
at Mrs. Stickney's, Lawrence Street.
19 - Wert to the Bethel Association.
22 - Morning, Attended Mr. Burknap's
Church. A.M. Afternoon,
1. The stage coach service ran once a day
between Concord, New Hampshire and Lowell
on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and
from Lowell to Concord on Tuesdays,
Thursdays and Saturdays.
2. Uzziah C. Burnap, Second Congregation-
al Church, Appleton Street and A.D.
McCoy, Second Episcopal Church, Merrimack
24 - Sister Lucy came to Lowell to work
in the mill with me. Board
Stickneys. Lucy came down.1
25 - Bickford came down. Went to the
29 - Attended Mr. Burknap's Church AM.
Feb 1 -
4 - Joseph Robinson spent the eve at Mr.
5 Attended the Roman Catholic Church
A.M.3 Mr. Burknap's
Church in the
1. Lucy Brown was twenty one years old in
2. The Lowell Institute was an associ-
ation of local gentlemen who sponsored
lectures and musical concerts often held
in the City Hall on Merrimack Street.
3. St. Patrick's Church on Suffolk Street
or St. Peter's on Central Street.
8 - Went to the Institute and heard Mr.
9 - Mr. Ben Bickford came down from
10 - Received 4.32 cts [in wages] from
11 - Received a paper from C. E. Rand.
Bought a bible of Hayes.
12 - Attended G.W. Beard's Temperance
lecture in the City Hall
13 - Fine Sleighing.
14 - Snowy. Mr. Stickney came with a
sleigh after us. Paid Mr.
Stickney 1.43 cts. [in board]
15 - Spent the eve at Mrs. Hams.3
1. Reverend Henry A. Miles, rector of the
South Congregational Unitarian Church on
Merrimack Street and the author in 1845
of Lowell As It Is. and As ItWas.
topic of his lecture at the Institute is
2. Paymaster, Middlesex Company.
3. Isaac L. Ham and his wife lived on
Lawrence Street near the Stickneys.
16 - Came out of the mill for the day
17 - Almira and I made calls and dined at
18 - Went to work again
19 - Attended Mr. Burknap's church.
Called at Eben Foss1
21 - Went to Almira's party. At a walnut
[cake] with Mr. Frank J.
26 - Went to the Unitarian Church. Heard
Mr. Wellington of Manchester.
March 1 -
Went to the Institute.
C. Smith lectured
1. Eben Foss also lived on Lawrence
Street where he shared a house with the
Hams. He worked as a teamster.
2. Frank H. Nourse was identified in the
1844 Lowell City Directory as a clerk for
a local auctioneer who boarded in Lowell.
2 - Came out sick at noon. Spent the
night at Mr. Foss.1
3 - Did not go into the mills.
5 - Afternoon attended Mr. Miles
meeting. Liked very much.
8 - Removed to Eben Foss to Board - near
by the Dabneys and in house with
Isaac Ham and family - one son
9 - George has returned from Gilmanton
10 - Received 8.95 cts from Mr. Anderson
Paid Mr. Stickney 6.25 cts
board] leaving myself 2.70.
1. Susan's recurrent bouts of "sickness"
may have been the result of the close air
and fumes from the lamps which lit the
area where the weavers worked. In 1846
Eliza Hemenway testified to a high
incidence of sickness among the Middlesex
weavers, see Hannah Josephson, The Golden
Threads New England's Mill Girls and
Magnates. 1949, p. 257.
2. George Ham was a carpenter who became
a friend and companion of Susan Brown's.
11 - [Met] Mr. Nourse on Market St. Came
out of the mill at 4 o'clock.
12 - Morning. Attending Mr. Woodman's
church on Merrimac St. Was
pleased with the service
other save the Catholic
that I have
attended. Heard Dr. Robinson's
experience at the City Hall1
15 - Institute closed.
16 - Orrin and Jonathan Sanderson [of
Epsom] arrived in Lowell. Called
Mr. Stickney's. Went [walking]
1. Jonathan Woodman, First Free Will
Baptist Church on Merrimack Street. Dr.
Robinson was a temperance lecturer who
also ran a small company of actors which
performed temperance dramas, such as "The
Reformed Drunkard's Comedy," in many New
England towns in 1843. The temperance
cause was strong in Lowell in the early
1840s. The Lowell Courier and its editor
William Schouler supported it. The Lowell
Washington Total Abstinence Society ran a
hotel on Central Street which featured a
temperance oyster bar. Its ladies'
auxiliary, the Martha Washingtons, ran
fund raising activities in Lowell.
18 - Had a social party at E. Foss.
Wells spent the night here.
19 - Attended Mr. Burknap's meeting all
day. Spent the eve at Wm
21 - Went to the Museum1
22 - Paid board up to this day. Went to
the reformed drunkard's
23 - Called at Mr. Stickney's
1. The Lowell Museum on April 21, 1843
featured: "The original, well-known, and
justly celebrated Ventriloquist, and
Prof'r of Ledgerdemain,..." Mr.
Harrington of Boston. The advertisement
in the Lowell Courier promised: "Laugha-
ble, Comical, Quisical, Mysterious,
Magical, Wonderful, Astonishing Experi-
ments of Ventriloquism, Imitations, &c,
&c, &c." Tickets admitting two persons
were 25 cents and the performance began
at 8 PM.
2. Later, Susan crossed out the first
item in the entry. The Robinson company
of temperance players performed the
comedy at City Hall.
26 - Heard Mr. Taylor at Mr. Burknap's
church AM. Mr. Burknap pm.
Mr. Fitts Gibbon Temperance
April 1 -
2 - Went to Mr. Burknap's church AM.
Heard Mr. Kimball's Temperance
lecture at the City Hall.
3 - Attended Mr. Grey's Geological
lecture at the John St. vestry.1
1. Asa Gray of Andover, Massachusetts, a
geologist at Harvard College, had lectur-
ed previously at Mechanics' Hall operated
by the Middlesex Mechanics' Association
on May 29, 1843 on "Age and End of the
World!" His lectures were illustrated by
pictures of plant and animal fossils
recently discovered by paleontologists
which raised questions about the dating
of the earth's formation from the cre-
ation story in the Bible. On April 3 and
4 Gray lectured at the John Street
4 - Went to Mr. Grey's lecture on
5 - Lucy came out sick. Came home from
the mill at three o'clock. Called at
Mr. Stickney's. Rainy. Paid board
up to the day.
6 - Fast Day.1 Wrote home. Very much
snow for the Season.
7 - Lucy bought her shawl. Received
7.95 cts. from Anderson. Paid Eben
5 dolls [dollars for board].
8 - [Illegible word] Dr. Landers Called.
Gave everyone emetic and pills. Did
9 - Lucy went to Mr. Burknap's church
all day. I did not go out.
10 - Lucy went to Middlesex at 7 o'clock.
Did not go to work myself. Called
at Mr. Foss. Dr. Landers called.
1. A traditional New England religious
observance of fasting and prayer, still
observed as a holiday in New Hampshire.
11 - George Ham went to Boston. Did not
go to the mill. Received
from Mr. E. Proctor. Bought
rubbers. Went to the Conflagration
12 - Did not go to work. Miss Nancy
Mason visited here.
13 - Entered Middlesex again.
1. Susan might have bought her rubbers
at a shoe store which she later patron-
ized for gaiters, Andrew C. Wright, Boot,
Shoe and Leather Store on Merrimack
Street which advertised "Ladies Thick and
Thin Shoes, Gaiters and Rubbers of all
kinds." "The Conflagration of Moscow"
was staged at the Lowell Museum as a
sound and light show depicting with
cannon fire and military music the
burning of the city by Napoleon in 1812.
It was billed as "Great an Unprece-
dented Attraction!" The Lowell Museum
burned down later in the 1840s.
15 - Back water came out at noon.1
16 - Went to Gorham St. heard Mr.
[illegible] from Worcester
Minor at 2nd Universalist
1. The spring of 1843 was uncommonly
snowy and rainy. By mid April both the
Concord and Merrimack Rivers, swollen by
quickly melting snow and rain, had risen
15 feet. According to the Lowell Courier
of April 18,1843, the winter ice in the
Merrimack had broken loose and was
plunging over the Pawtucket Falls. The
view was magnificent. As a result of all
of the water, the canals on the lower
level of the Locks and Canals system had
risen and swamped the water wheels at the
Middlesex, the Massachusetts, the Boot
and the Lawrence. The rest of the mills
on the upper level of the canal system
continued to operate. By April 20, the
rivers had subsided five feet.
2. The Second Universalist Church on
Market Street was led by Alonzo B. Minor.
17 - Called at Middlesex - back water -
did not work. Rainy. Great,
dull day. Visited Mrs. Hodgman.1
Went down to see the water
the vestry. Called
on Mrs. Miles.
18 - M.E. and I went up to the vestry.
Worked on Mariana's tunic.
spent the eve with us at
Called on Mrs. Stuart and
19 - At Mrs. Ham's. Went to the Appleton
St. Picnic. A fire on Central
1. Wife of Benjamin Hodgman. They lived
on Lawrence Street near the Stickneys and
the Fosses. Hodgman was a carpenter at
the Whipple Powder Mill.
2. Mr. Burnap's church on Appleton Street
held a picnic or vestry tea party where
hymns were sung and refreshments were
enjoyed. A large fire broke out in a
building used for manufacturing carriages
on Central Street.
20 - Pleasant. Philipend, Richmond,
George, Mary, Lucy and I
to the Cemetery.1
Lewis went to Boston
21 - Beautiful day. Went back to
Middlesex again at noon.
22 - Eben moved Abel Brown. Pleasant.
23 - Rainy. Went with G.H, [George Ham]
to Mr. Burknap's P.M.
24 - Rainy. Received a letter from
Jeffrey - paper from Barnstead.
25 - Rainy. Came out of the Mill at noon
to wait. Had my breast pin
Called at Mrs. Richardsons.
1. The Lowell Cemetery was laid out over
44 acres of ground on the east bank of
the Concord River near the street where
Susan and Lucy boarded with the Fosses
and near the Whipple Powder Mill. The
Cemetery, modeled after the Mount Auburn
Street Cemetery in Cambridge,
Massachusetts, was designed as a park
with trees and flowering shrubs to be a
"garden of graves." The cemetery was
consecrated in 1841. Oliver Whipple was
a member of the Board of Trustees, which
maintains the cemetery today much as it was
designed in the 1840s.
26 - Almira and I passed the bleachery.1
Called at Mrs. Robinsons.
to the Pawtucket Falls2
house - canal bridge and
else. Went to the anti slavery
27 - Rainy. Went to Methuen PM.3 -Took
tea with K. Ham.
28 - Pleasant. Mrs. Hodgman sick - (very
warm) Staid a few hours
[infant son] George. Lucy
went over the farm by Nesmith
to Fort Hill by the cemetery
Went to the Hutchinson concert
the Mechanics' Hall.
1. The Lowell Bleachery whitened the
cotton textiles produced by the Lowell
mills in preparation for the process of
printing. Lowell calicos were famous in
the nineteenth century.
2. The Pawtucket Falls provided the over
thirty foot drop in the Merrimack River
which was the source of the waterpower
for the Lowell mills. The locomotive
used by the Locks and Canals Company was
located in its own engine house.
3. Methuen is a neighboring town, east of
4. Their excursion circled the area of
Belvidere, the eastern part of the city
29 - Fine day. Mrs. Hodgman sick yet.
George Ham, Lucy and I went
bleachery. Elias' wife spent
day on the Boott [Mills].
30 - Rainy. Did not attend meeting Mrs.
Stickney taken sick.
May 1 –
Very rainy Sick. Did
not go to the
mill. I thought of
2 - We went to the Middlesex in the morn
did not work any. G. [George] Lucy
and I went to the Irish Burying
ground. G and I went to Mr.
Russell's concert at Mechanic's
3 - Went with Almira to Mr. [illegible]
office. Called at Mr. E. Burknap's,
Mr. Clough's and [illegible] Spent
the am at Stickney's. Jenness came
1. The Catholic Cemetery, St. Patrick's,
is located on Gorham Street. Mr. Russell
was a concert singer. Mechanics' Hall,
the City Hall and the Lowell Museum were
the principal locations where lectures,
concerts and exhibits were staged.
4 - Went to work at 7 o'clock Jenness
and Orrin left for Epsom Mr. Bowers
left Mrs. Hams
5 - Pleasant. At work. Payday. Took
9'36 Clara Brown called. Eben and
wife went to Acton.1
6 - Eben and wife returned with news of
the rail car accident.
7 - Pleasant. Rainy. Did not attend
church. Went to Mr. McCoy's
Temperance lecture at St. Luke's
Church.2 Wells came over.
8 - Sixteen weeks today! But it will
not be sixteen weeks longer here.
Called at the offiee.3 George
began work at Belvidere.
9 - Called at Mrs. Hodgman's found her
better. Mrs. Stickney very sick.
Morrison called at Mr. Foss.
1. A town south of Lowell, near Concord.
2. The Second Episcopal Church on
3. On May 8 the post office was opened
for the first time until 8:30 PM each
night except Sunday "to better accomodate
the citizens," according to the Lowell
10 - Pleasant.
11 - In the mill as usual. Wish I was at
Epsom or [illegible] or
12 - Lucy left the mill watched with
13 - Mr. Jenness called on his return
from Boston. Wrote a few
by him. Lucy called at Middlesex.
Received my ring. Eben started
Hopkinton [New Hampshire].
14 - Went to Mr. Porter's. C. Baptist AM
Mr. Edson's St. Ann's Church
Lucy to Mr. Ballard's AM
Mr. Hose PM4
Very hot day. Lucy went
funeral. Called at Abel
1. New Hampshire towns well known to
2. Mrs. Whipple, the wife of Oliver
Whipple, had a fatal illness and died in
3. Lemuel Porter, Worthen Street Baptist
Church and Theodore Edson, First
Episcopal Church on Merrimack Street.
4. Joseph Ballard, First Baptist Church
on Church Street and Schuyler Hoes,
Methodist Episcopal Church, Hurd Street.
15 - Very hot day. Lucy went to Mr.
Whipple's Played chequers
Lewis at eve. Eben returned
16 - Very warm. Orrin returned [from
Epsom] Mrs. Ham papered
painted. I called at the
for her. Harriet had her
George went to the Mesmerism
by Mr. Cobb.1
17 - Warm. Called at the Stage office
George called for me, found
basket. Mrs. Morrison and
called and went over to
18 - Warm. George went to the stage
office for me. Gave me my
Brought my ring home.2
spent the day on the Boott
1. Mr. Cobb of Boston spoke at City Hall
on the science of "Living Magnetism" I
explaining "the philosophy of seeing in
the magnetic state without the eyes, and
hearing silent thoughts."
2. The ring was apparently sent to her
from Epsom by her family.
20 - Still immured within the massy brick
walls of a hateful factory.
Brown brought me a few lines
Uncle. They were indeed
21 - Mary E [Stickney] Ellen Grummett & I
went over to the Cemetery
at Mr. Whipples. Wrote home.
to the temperance lecturer
Lucy and Wells called on
22 - Sick - did not work. Mrs. Hodgman
and I called at Mrs. Osgoods.
[illegible] chosed my bonnet
Darrah, Central Street.1
23 - Pleasant. In the mill as usual.
25 - Called at Mrs. Whitney's Hurd St.
Eben's and Whit's wives
26 - Pleasant. Lewis removed from Mrs.
Ham's Bowers came and took
1. A milliner at 12 Central Street.
2. For friends of a mill operative to
call for her at the counting house of her
employer was not unknown, but not
encouraged by the mill management.
27 - Rainy.
28 - Did not attend church. G W, Mary
Foss and I went over to
29 - Mary E and I went to Stage Office.
30 - Received the basket from home.
31 - Came out at 3 o'clock. Went to
Whipple's. Lucy left there.
and I went to [illegible]
June 1 - Took breakfast at Mrs.
[illegible] on Hurd St.
night at my own boarding
Called up to
Eben's. Lucy gone to Whipples.
2 - A letter from E.S. and Jeffrey.
Lucy called at the mill. L Harriman
and I spent the eve at Mrs. Hams.
3 - Spent the night at Mr. Foss' with
1. Mrs. Whitney's which was probably a
Middlesex boarding house.
4 - Wrote home by Lucy AM Went to Mr.
Thayer's Church, Central St. PM.1
Returned to my boarding place at
5 - Rainy. Lucy called at the mill. I
went on the street with her and
staid at Mr. Foss'.
6 - Rainy. Lucy started for home.
7 - Called at Mrs. Pollard's and had my
dress fitted. purchased
at Wrights on Mer St.2
8 - Rainy. Called at Stone's and got
1. Thomas B. Thayer, Universalist Church.
2. A.C. Wright, 59 Merrimack Street.
3. Susan's attendance at temperance
lectures suggests that her purchase of
gin at George U. Stone's store, West
India Goods and Medicines in Central
Village, was an errand run for a family
friend. On August 12 she and a friend
would buy liquor at Stone's as medicine
for Mrs. Whipple who died that night.
Despite the advocacy of total abstinence
by the Washingtonians, many New
Englanders still believed in the
medicinal and revivifying power of
spirits. George U. Stone was later
listed in the 1845 Lowell City Directory
as a physician.
9 - Rainy - Payday - receive 15.79 cts.
called at Mr. Hams & Foss'
10 - Rainy PM at my boarding place.
11 - Rainy S Hemingway sick. Went with
Perdis to Mr. Burknaps,
took tea at
Mrs. Hams. Called on Orrin,
Mrs. Stickneys & returned
12 - Called at Mrs. Pollards & took my
dress. George Ham called
13 - Harriet W & I went a shopping.
Sarah Bray came here [Mrs.
Whitney's] to board.
14 - Morton Hemenway called.
15 - Mr. Mack & sister arrived. G.H.
called. R. Haven called
- called at
Mr. Watson's, saw Mrs. Dowley.
16 - Worked till 7.1 Went up to Mrs. Hams
and spent the day. Rainy.
1. Working hours during the summer months
with maximum daylight began as early at 5
17 - Called at Hurd St. Took 7 o'clock
cars for Boston. Landed
at no. 4 G
Court St Went to B Hill
market and the [illegible]
[Susan Brown noted later
Attended the exercises at
Hill - at finishing of monument
address by Daniel Webster
indeed, arr. Boston wit
18 - Went to the Tabernacle Howard St. to
church, Green Park. Walked
the common with Mr. N's
then went to Park St. church.
19 - Went all over Boston. Took
Charlestown Branch cars
to M - Fresh
pond & [illegible] square
Took L (Lowell) cars again
to [illegible], took tea,
to Hurd St. tried change.
20 - Went to work after breakfast. S.
Bray and I called on the
& 18 Suffolk.2
1. Daniel Webster's oration at the
dedication of the Bunker Hill monument
was expected to attract thousands of New
2. The two young women were calling on
friends at other corporation boarding
21 - came out sick at 7 wrote home by
Mrs L George called.
22 - very hot, Did not go in.
23 - Went to work at 7 o'clock
24 - G. Ham called M E Stickney left
25 - Went to Mr. Burknaps Morn. Mr.
Ballard's heard his [illegible]
Called at Stickney's Saw
26 - Called at Mr. Hams & Stickneys Row
boat arrived from Charlestown.1
27 - Evening. Called at Mrs. Hams
Betsey and I were out sick.
1. To celebrate the Bunker Hill
dedication at Charlestown, a ten man crew
rowed a 36 foot barge, the Bunker Hill,
up the Middlesex Canal from Medford to
Lowell, passing through many sets of
locks and towns on the way. They
anchored the barge near the hotel, the
American House, where they celebrated
28 - James Poor called at the mill
evening. He called with
[illegible] We went to see
and took ice cream at French.1
29 - Harriet W. sick - called Dr. Graves
[on Hurd Street] in the
went up with him. Called
French's with S. Bray.
July 1 - Jonas Sanders came down [from
Epsom] called at Mrs. Hams.
2 - Did not attend church. Spent the
afternoon on Lawrence St. Wrote
home by Orrin. Conflagration at
3 - Sick Did not work. Orrin went
home. I bought my shawl paid 5.00
A letter from L. [illegible] &
Catherine for Lucy.
1. Amos French, Confectioner, 21 Central
Street. In late June, French's was
advertising strawberries and cream in
2. Two hundred and fifty buildings burned
at Fall River on a windy June 2 in a
raging fire which killed four people.
4 - Holiday. Spent the day at Mrs. Hams
Old Mrs. Foss very sick. ; Gave N
Johnson her letter. Went to Museum
to see Kip Darling perform.1
5 - Rainy went to work at 7 Called at
Fosses & Hams
6 - In the mill as usual
7 - Received 15'10 Paid 4.64 [in board]
but Mr. Stickney 2'1. bought braid
chain 2'5. Letter from Lucy.
8 - In the mill as usual
9 - Morn Sarah, Persis & I went over to
the new burying ground. Persis and
I went to Mr. Miles church. Susan
and I to Mr. Hanks PM2 Went to
Hams & cemetery at eve.
1. There was no advertisement in the
Lowell Courier for this performance.
2. Stedman Hanks, John Street
10 - Persis and I went a shopping –
bought mits & calico
Lums came here to board.
11 - Called at Mr Foss's & Hams. Watched
with the Vance family.
12 - At home
13 - Attended Adams school1
15 - Persis W went to Mrs. Wentworthy to
16 - Six months since I left home Went
the Burknap PM Heard Mr.
Andover at the vestry Eve
at Mrs. Hams
1. The "Adams School" may have been the
#15 primary school kept by Miss Louisa
Adams who might have been an acquaintance
of Susan's. She paid another visit on
2. A Middlesex boarding house on Warren
20 - Mother arrived in Lowell. I took
tea at Mrs Hams & staid
21 - Came out before 7. Took tea at
22 - Did not work. Took tea at Mr.
23 - We went to Miles AM Mother to
Burnaps PM I staid at Mrs.
Mother came home with me
Went to cemetery.
24 - Mother went to Boston I returned
to Hurd St. GH called is
home [?] I returned to Whitneys.
25 - Called at Mrs. Hams and Mrs Foss'
26 - Mother called I at Whipples. we
27 - Mother washed for me at Stickneys
called here at eve.
1. It was customary in New England towns
for neighbors and friends to relieve
families by sitting at the bedside of the
sick and the dying, comforting them as
much as possible.
28 - Mother spent the day at Mrs.
Whipple's night at Hams
there at eve.
29 - Mother left Mrs. Hams & spent the
day with Mrs. W GH called,
called there and Mother
staid all night.
30 - Rainy. Spent day at Hams Called at
31 - Rainy. Mother went home. Went to
work at 8 Called at Adams
Bought my trunk of McLanathan.1
August 1 -
2 - Eve. Took a letter by mistake.
Paid 30 cts for "Humphrey Clock."
3 - Eve purchased by album 100 at Powers
and Bagley2 Mercy started
1. S. McLanathan, 47 Merrimack Street,
2. Later Susan crossed out the first item
in this entry. She apparently returned
the first album she purchased and bought
a more expensive one the next day.
3. Manchester, New Hampshire was another
textile manufacturing center about thirty
miles north of Lowell.
4 - Eve. Purchased by Album with S Bray
at Powers - 112 ½
5 - Called at Powers
6 - AM at home PM went with Bray to
Burnaps, & to hear Johnson
7 - Pamela Kent and I went out. Bought
Highland Shawl 197.1
8 - Rainy. E. Jones left. Sent paper
to Boston and home. Harriett and
went a shopping. Letter from Lucy.
9 - Betsey and R Libby came here to
board. GWH called
10 - BW called at the door. Rainy.
11 - John Steel & Brasure called to see
me. Pamelia Kent & I
shopping Sent a box home.
Mercy returned from Manchester.
1. In August, Ward & Thompson's on the
corner of Merrimack and John Streets were
advertising; "Shawls! Shawls! Cashmere,
Silk, Edinboro, Brocha, Mouslin de Laine.
12 - Cloudy. M E & Almira [Stickney]
called at the Mill Martha
went to Stone's for liquor.
Whipple died tonight. S.
Bray and I
called at Powers & Bs.
13 - Pleasant - called at Stickneys and
Hamms & dined at Ebens.
Went to St.
heard Mr [illegible]
Went with Bray and M. Syne
Hall. Johnson, Clark &
spoke called on May Gowell.
14 - Mrs. Whipple was buried. M Gowell &
S Holmes called at the mill.
15 - called at Ebens & Isaacs. Mr
[illegible] went to Concord
16 - Seven months today since I left the
north road! How swift the
time roll on. S. Tebbetts
Mrs. Hams a moment.
17 - Bought needles & linen of Lord for
wristers 8 cts
18 - Seven months since I first entered
Since I saw home!
Alone & among strangers!
shall I return?
1. First Methodist Church, Hurd Street,
Schuyler Hoes, Pastor
19 - S. Bray went to Manchester. Jane
Shute came here to board.
office with Mercy.
20 - Rainy wrote to mother. Went with
M Lund to Mr Hanks church
Commenced reading Humphrey's
21 - Rainy M Lund left us for her
sisters Mercy sick. We had
in the mill.1
23 - Called at Mrs. Hams & spent the eve
with Mr Wood & Almira
24 - I came out at nine, went in to the
Hamilton with Betsey waited till
two for a beam.2
26 - Mary Gowell called to see Snow.
Went on to the street with Harriett
1. No fire at the Middlesex was reported
in the Lowell Courier.
2. A beam wound with warp threads fits
into the back of the loom and without it,
no weaving can be done. See illustration,
27 - Very warm. G Ham left me a note for
Lucy by Mrs Teel. Went to
Ballard's M. called on M
went over to Dracut to hear
Portguese preach at evening.
28 - Weston left us on a visit.
29 - Went out to Smith's with B. Libby.
30 - Took a new Spare hand.1 Came out at
6 to wait for a beam. A
Lucy Susan & Persis
called to see
us. Betsey Libby started
31 - Went out on the street. Went to
work at 10 o'clock wrote
September 1 -
Morgan Holt came to
Sarah Bray returned.
We called on
Mrs. Cox. Bought elastic
cts. Called at Mrs.
1. Susan had herself started out as a
sparehand weaver, and now she was
teaching another newcomer how to operate
the loom and fix broken threads.
2 - Lewis called at the mill. I called
at Mrs. Hams. M Heminway left the
3 - Went with S Bray & M Lund to
Blanchards.1 AM with L. Shutt
Wesley Chapel PM. 2 City
Hall to hear
Johnson of Boston & to the Hamilton
Hall to hear a Jew.
4 - The runner brought me a letter from
G. Called at Mrs. Hams. G came
down with me. Mr. Stickney & Wife
started for [illegible]
5 - Called in the Boott. M Gowall had
removed. Called & left the Rose
Sharon at Mrs. Hams. G came down
1. Dressmaker, Harriet M. Blanchard's on
2. There were two Wesleyan Methodist
Churches, one on Bartlett Street and the
other on Lowell Street which had been
organized in 1843 and might have been the
3. Possibly a needlework or quilt
6 - came out sick before seven. Wrote
home. Went with B Whitney to see
the tables at the City Hall picnic.1
Harriet W. taken sick.
7 - left my letter at the office. at
home all day.
8 - At home. H Whitney sick.
9 - Lucy's birthday. 22 today! Called
at M Gowell's in Belvidere Left
dress at Pollards.
10 - At home AM Went with J. Shute to
St. Ann's PM with Shute,
Libby to the cemetery. Harriet
11 - S. Bray & I left our Gaiters at
Simons to be made. Saw C. Bickford
& C Sanborn & M Gowell.
the mill again at 5.
1. The Martha Washingtons, the ladies'
auxiliary of the Washingtonian
temperance society, were holding a picnic
at City Hall to raise funds for the
cause. A brass band was promised.
12 - Called at Miss Rollout & Mores Saw
13 - Pleasant. Took my dress from Miss
Pollards. paid 30 cts for
14 - Went with M. Lund to Simons & Swans.l
Bought linen insertions
15 - Called at Simons. Janet Shute taken
sick. Called at Dr. Butterfields
16 - 8 months today. Called at office.
Letter from Lucy.
17 - Went with M Whitney to Mr. Ballards'
with S. Bray to Mr. Burnaps,
funeral. With Lund to Stickneys
Hams to hear the Jewess.
18 - Left the mill. Went to Sunderland's
lecture on Magnetism.2
1. Daniel Swan, Boots and Shoes, located
on Merrimack Street formed a partnership
in 1843 with Simons.
2. A lecture on mesmerism or hypnotism at
Mechanics' Hall which promised trances
and somnambolic or sleepwalking
19 - Jane Shute went to work again. Took
9'73 cts of Anderson Paid Mrs
[Whitney] 345 cts Bought Chuson
dresses paid 816.1
Lining 18 Cutting
85 cts. Called at Foss' Nancy
staid at Stickneys.
20 - Bickford called at Stickneys. I
called on all the friends.
21 - Started for home with Bickford.
brought me from Aunt [Catherine?]
staid all night. Found Uncle
& Theodore here.
1. Watson & Company was advertising
cashmere and "Chusan" prints at 12 1/2
cents a yard. Could she have bought 68